“Clones can think creatively. You will find that they are immensely superior to droids.”—Lama Su
Cloning was the process of creating a genetically identical or purposefully and specifically modified copy of an original organism. The Kaminoans of Kamino were known as the "master cloners", and their most notable achievement was the creation of the Clone Troopers of the Grand Army of the Republic prior to the Clone Wars.
“What can you teach a clone in a few months that a man takes a lifetime to learn?”—Emperor Palpatine to Lord Darth Vader
Kaminoan scientists maintained a vast Military Complex within Tipoca City, where tens to hundreds of thousands of clones were grown in Kamino cloning chambers and trained. The Kaminoans used growth acceleration techniques to double the rate of development in their clones, making them combat-ready within a decade following their creation. These clones had their genetic structures altered to suit the needs of their masters, and were thus independent yet fiercely loyal to their supreme commanders.
The Kaminoans also taught the Polis Massans the secrets of their cloning techniques, which helped develop an advanced medical and genetic research station on Polis Massa. Although the exact rate at which clones aged is unknown, it appears to be at least twice as fast as ordinary beings. There is speculation that this rate increased as clones aged, leading to a dramatic shortening of the life cycle. This was a primary factor forcing the Empire to compose their Stormtrooper Corps primarily of recruits and conscripts by 0 BBY. Clones, unlike Battle droids, could think and strategize, making them more creative and more effective, although this was not always the case.
Aside from these forms of cloning, other methods were used across the galaxy. Spaarti cloning cylinder were the preferred method refined by the Galactic Empire, and were later used by the rogue Fett clone: "Alpha O2" or "Spar" to create his own personal clone army on Wayland. Another form of cloning was performed by the Arkanian Microtechnologies, were able to clone hundred(s) of thousands of clones within 30 days, and successfully flash-train each of them, within half a year period. Studies indicate that if clones were bred to quickly, they clones would result in having Clone Madness, however, when administered the Ysalamiri Antidote, the antidote would instantly cure the symptoms, and allow the clone to function normally.
Grand Admiral Thrawn used Spaarti cloning cylinders to create a new clone army on Wayland. Some cultures fully embraced the possibilities of cloning, most notably the natives of Khomm, who engineered a clone society, entirely eliminating natural reproduction. Khommite clones from the Dorsk lineage were active in the New Jedi Order.
“Cloning has many benefits.”—Palpatine
Although cloning has provided benefits for creating a vast amount number of clones to fordge a clone army, individuals could create clones of themselves for their own reasons, modifying them to their desire and advantages.
On Wayland, Joruus C'baoth cloned Luke Skywalker using the hand Luke had lost on Cloud City. The clone was named Luuke Skywalker and was armed with Anakin Skywalker's lightsaber. At the same time, in another storehouse on Wayland, the rogue Fett clone: "Spar", discovered another cloning facility containin hundred(s) of thousands(s) of Spaarti cloning cylinders and used them to create his own personal Fett clone army, being the 2nd Fett clone to create his own Fett clone army.